< Priority Support

How does SafetySpectrum Support H&OP?
Human and Organizational Performance (H&OP)

When a hazard can not be eliminated, substituted (less hazardous), controlled, or protected then the most effective way to reduce risk is Learning
In many SIFs the hazard was known but the risk was not correctly assessed by the organization that owns the asset nor the work team at the touch point of the asset. At SafetySpectrum we believe this error in assessing risk originates from two areas:
- Degraded Situational Awareness (SA) across the Organization and the work team at the touch point.
- An Incorrect Mental Model held by both the Organization and the work team at the touch point.

Mental Models are degraded by:
- Time
The pilot has not flown this type of plane in a while.
- Deviation
The pilot flies this plane every day. A checkout ride is given every six months to check for deviation.
- Change
Boeing installed MCAS which pushes the nose down and did not tell the pilots.

(Note: Aviation industry examples were chosen because it is easy for all industries to relate to.)

SafetySpectrum In The Vicinity map of Safety Spectrum Elements Helps Organizations To:
- Maintain Situational Awareness (SA) of every hazard relative to any person in the organization. (can't asses risk if you don't know it is there)
- Keep the Organization's Mental Models from degrading.
- Correctly assess the current risk of the Hazard by learning from both success and mistakes made by others in the same or similar situations.

SafetySpectrum Is a "Layer 1" System for Preventing SIFs
SafetySpectrum enables Safety Professionals to map every visible and hidden hazard in the Organization. These hazards are either known or newly discovered by a team while working. SafetySpectrum's "In The Vicinity" map helps Safety Professionals to work with work teams to mitigate all of the removable hazards. For the inherent hazards like heights and electricity SafetySpectrum "In the Vicinity" maps provides the situational awareness and knowledge to the team working.

James Reason originally proposed a model of what happens when an Organization's lines of defense break down. Reason called his model: "The Swiss Cheese Model of Defences". This model helps to visualize and explain the randomness of SIFs. H&OP has advanced since 1997. For the purposes of the way H&OP is being practiced in the twenties we propose slight modifications to Reason's model when used to discuss H&OP:

- Layer 1: Organization fails to mitigate all removable hazards and fails to"wrap" inherent hazards to tolerate human error by failing to a safe state.
- Layer 2: Safety Culture and Safety Management fails. (e.g. supervision)
- Layer 3: Error Reduction and Managing Defenses fails.
- Layer 4: Human Error inevitably occurs.

Image: reasons swiss cheese model

When the "holes line up"...the person's only hope to escape SIF is the PPE they are wearing.
Ref: "Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents" by James Reason, Published by Routledge, Ch-1, pg-9, December 1997